February 2, 2010

The Battle for Quebec

FROM THE PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE:
November 8, 1759
The Pennsylvania Gazette
NEW YORK, November 5.
The French Prisoners say, that Mons. Montcalm was almost sure of Success before he attacked our Troops; telling his Men, Wolfe was but a young Officer, and he would soon chastise him. ---- Montcalm was killed on Horseback in the Engagement, and his Body taken and buried in the City. ---- General Wolfe was shot as he was charging his Men to keep down, being squatted, till the Enemy gave three Vollies, and was mortally wounded by the Canadians; but being satisfied that the Enemy were flying before him, he quietly submitted to [ ] A Death in such a Manner, and in such Cause, [ ] to be envied than pitied! --- It is said that most of the Indians have left the French Army; --- That the Batteries at Quebec are suprizingly strong, the Wall of the Town being near 15 Feet thick.

November 22, 1759
The Pennsylvania Gazette
NEW YORK, November 19.




We hear that a Company of the Royal Regiment of Artillery which arrived here last Week from Albany, are bound immediately to South Carolina, on board the Scarborough and Hunter. Saturday Night arrived here from Quebec, His Majesty Ship Fowey, of 24 Guns. --- On board of her came Passengers, Brigadier General Monckton, Major Spittal, and several other Gentlemen of the Army: And Yesterday Morning the General was saluted by a Discharge of 21 Pieces of Cannon from Fort George; and by all His MajestyShips in the Harbour. --- The Fowey had but 16 Days Passage from the Isle of Orleans.
CAPITULATION of QUEBEC, September 18, 1759.
ARTICLES of Capitulation, proposed by Mr. Ramsey, Lieutenant Governor, commanding the Upper and Lower Towns of Quebec, to his Excellency the General of His Britannic Majesty Army.
The Capitulation was ratified, agreeable to the under mentioned Conditions, viz.
ARTICLE I.
Mr. Ramsey asks for the Honours of War for the Garrison: That it shall be conducted to the Army in Safety the shortest road, with Arms, Baggage, six Pieces of Brass Cannon, two Mortars, and twelve Rounds to each Piece.
The Garrison of the City, comprehending Land Troops, Marines and Seamen, shall march out of the Garrison with Arms, Baggage, Drums, &c. two Pieces of French Iron Cannon, and twelve Rounds per Gun, they shall be embarked for France as conveniently as possible, and landed at the first Port there.

II. That the Inhabitants be in full Possession of their Effects, Houses and Privileges. Granted.

III. The Inhabitants shall not be sought after for having carried Arms in Defence of Quebec, as they were forced to it, and the Inhabitants of the two Crowns serve equally as Militia. Agreed.
IV. The Effects of the absent Officers and Inhabitants shall not be seized. Granted.

V. The Inhabitants shall not be removed, nor quit their Houses, until a Definitive Treaty between the two Crowns shall determine it. Agreed.

VI. The Exercise of the Roman Religion shall be tolerated; that Safeguards be placed at all Ecclesiastical Houses and Convents, including the Bishop; and that he be allowed to come and officiate in his function at Quebec, when he shall think proper, and exercise freely and decently the sacred Mysteries of Religion, until the Fate of Canada be decided by Treaty, between the two Crowns. Granted.

VII. The Artillery and warlike Stores shall be given up faithfully, and that an Inventory be taken of them. Agreed.

VIII. Commissaries, Clergymen, Surgeons and other necessary Persons shall be allowed to the Hospitals, agreeable to the Treaty of Exchange made the 6th of February, 1759, between the two Crowns. Granted.

IX. The General will be so good to place Safe guards at the Churches, Convents &c. before he is put in Possession of the Fort, and Entrance of the Towns. Granted.

X. the Lieutenant governor shall be permitted to send an Account of the surrender of the Place to the Marquis Caudreuille; as also by Letter to acquaint the French Ministry therewith. Granted.

XI. The present Capitulation shall be observed agreeable to its form and Tenure, without being subject to Non Execution, on Account or Pretext of Reprisals for Non Observance of precedent Capitulations. Granted.
Concluded, and Duplicates given between us, this 18th Day of September, 1759. Signed, CH. SAUNDERS, GEO. TOWNSHEND, DE RAMSEY.

On the different Batteries round Quebec were found no less than 180 Pieces of Cannon, from 36 to 2 Pounders, besides 15 Mortars from 13 to 7 Inches; and between the River St. Charles and Montmorencie were found 50 Iron guns, besides Mortars.

We can, with great Surety, inform the Public, that there is not one Word of Truth in the Report spread, and brought from Boston, of the Canadians attempting to blow up the Grand Magazine at Quebec. On the contrary, every Thing was well there the 30th of October, our Troops in good Spirits, and healthy; and nothing attempted by the enemy, to recover the Place since its Capitulation.
February 14, 1760
The Pennsylvania Gazette
Copy of another Letter from Admiral SAUNDERS to the Right
Honourable Mr. Secretary PITT, Sated September 20, 1759.
SIR,



I  HAVE the greatest Pleasure in acquainting you that the Town and the Citadel of Quebec surrendered on the 18th Instant, and I inclose you a Copy of the Articles of Capitulation. The Army took Possession of the Gates on the Land Side the same Evening, and sent Safe guards into the Town to preserve Order, and to prevent any thing being destroyed; and Captain Palliser, with a Body of Seamen, landed in the Lower town, and did the same. The next Day our Army marched in, and near a Thousand French officers, soldiers and Seamen, were embarked on board some English Catts; who shall soon proceed for France, agreeable to the Capitulation. I had the Honour to write to you the 5th Instant by the Rodney Cutter: The Troops, mentioned in that Letter, embarked on board the ships and Vessels above th town, in the Night of the 6th Inst. and at Four in the Morning of the 13th began to land on the North Shore, about a Mile and a half above the Town. General Montcalm, with his whole Army left their Camps at Beaufort, and marched to meet him. A little before Ten both Armies were formed, and the Enemy began the Attack. Our Troops received their Fire, and reserved their own, advancing till they were so near as to run in upon them, and push them with their Bayonets; by which, in a very little Time, the French gave Way, and fled to the Town in the utmost Disorder, and with great Loss; for our Troops pursued them quite to the Walls, and killed many of them upon the Glacis, and in the Ditch; and if the Town had been further off, the whole French Army must have been destroyed. About 250 French Prisoners were taken that Day, among whom are ten Captains, and six Subaltern Officers, all of whom will go in the great Ships to England.
I am sorry to acquaint you, that General Wolfe was killed in the Action; and General Monckton shot thro'the Body; but he is now supposed to be out of Danger. General Montcalm, and the three next French Officers in command, were killed; but I must refer you to Gen. Townshend (who writes by this Opportunity) for the Particulars of this Action, the State of the Garrison, and the Measures he is taking for keeping Possession of it. I am now beginning to send on Shore the Stores they will want, and Provisions for Five Thousand Men; of which I can furnish them with a sufficient Quantity.
The Night of their landing, Admiral Holmes, with the Ships and Troops, was about 3 leagues above the intended landing Place: General Wolfe, with about Half his Troops, set off in Boats, and dropped down with the Tide, and were, by that Means, less liable to be discovered by the French Centinels, posted all along the Coast. The Ships followed them about three Quarters of an Hour afterwards, and got to the landing Place just in the Time that had been concerted to cover their Landing; and considering the Darkness of the Night, and the Rapidity of the Current, this was a very critical Operation, and very properly and successfully conducted. When General Wolfe, and the Troops with him, had landed, the Difficulty of gaining the top of the Hill is scarce credible; it is very steep in its Ascent, and high, and had no Part were two could go a breast; but they were obliged to pull themselves us by the Stumps and Boughs of Trees, that covered the Declivity.
Immediately after our Victory over their Troops, I sent up all the Boats in the Fleet with Artillery and Ammunition; and on the 17th went up with the Men of War, in a Disposition to attack the Lower town, as soon as Gen. Townshend should be ready to attack the Upper ; but in the Evening they sent out to the Camp, and offered Terms of Capitulation.
I have the farther Pleasure of acquainting you, that during this tedious Campaign there has continued a perfect good Understanding between the Army and Navy. I have received great Assistance from Admiral Durell and Holmes, and from all the Captains; indeed every Body has exerted themselves in the Execution of their Duty; even the Transports have willingly assisted me with Boats and People on the landing the Troops, and many other Services. I have the Honour to be, &c.
CHARLES SAUNDERS.

GENERAL MONTCALM
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm

born Feb. 28, 1712, Ch√Ęteau de Candiac, France
died Sept. 14, 1759, Quebec

French military leader.
He joined the French army at age 12 and fought in several European conflicts. In 1756 he was placed in command of French troops in North America, but his commission excluded most military resources in Canada. He forced the British to surrender their post at Oswego and captured Fort William Henry (1757). At the Battle of Ticonderoga (1758), he repulsed an attack by 15,000 British troops with a force of just 3,800 men. Promoted to lieutenant general, he received authority over military affairs in Canada. In 1759 a British force of 8,500 troops under Gen. James Wolfe marched on Quebec; in the ensuing Battle of Quebec, Montcalm fought with conspicuous gallantry and was mortally wounded.


[Research in the Pennsylvania Gazette was done perusing through a subscription to Colonial Newspapers.   I also did research in the Pennsylvania Gazette at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia.  Benjamin Franklin founded the APS and established the Pennsylvania Gazette.  The research done in Philadelphia was Acadian oriented and thus encouraged me to subscribe online to a service that allowed me to access 18th century newspapers.]


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Acadian Ancestral Home/Quebec
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